Saturday, June 09, 2018

Internet Definition Evolution Major Networks Services Applications

Source (Internet): IACE Material.

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What is Internet

The Internet is a worldwide network of networks. It can be defined as a global network of over millions of smaller heterogeneous computer networks consists of a set of national, regional and private. The internet is the common language whereby dissimilar computers with various operating systems, are able to communicate with each other, using a standard set of protocols. The Internet is the world's largest computer network, a distinction it has earned by virtue of being a "network of networks." The Internet is an outgrowth of a network (ARPANET) established roughly a quarter-century ago to meet the needs of researchers working in the defense industry in the United States and a few of their colleagues in other countries. The ARPANET grew slowly, from a handful of computers in 1971 to more than 1000 in 1984. Working with the ARPANET researchers came to regard high-speed computer networks as an indispensable tool for academic research in all fields, and in 1986 the US National Science Foundation established NSFNET to provide network connections to more research institutions and improve international network cooperation. in 1987, the Internet served more than 10,000 computers. By 1989 the network had grown to more than 100,000.

Evolution of Internet

The origin of Internet can be traced to a U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) organization called Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).
ARPA developed a four node packet switching. network called ARPANET in 1969. The network was intended to support the military research on fault tolerant computer networks. DoD wanted to ensure a reliable data transfer in the event of a nuclear war, even if parts of the network has been destroyed.
As the years pass by, the network grew in size and by 1st January 1983, the ARPANET no longer remained an experimental network but its control was passed over to Defense Communications Agency (DCA).
The network then became available for the academic research, government employee and contractors.
The world's fastest and most powerful computers were made available to an academic and scientific community.
In 1990 the ARPANET was officially decommissioned.

Some of the major networks contributing to the growth of the internet are as follows:

     ARPANET
     USENET (User's network)
     CSNET (Computer science network)
     BITNET (Because it's time network)
     NSFNET (National science foundation network)
     WWW (World Wide Web)
      NREN (National research and education network)
      Intranet
  It is said that the Internet is growing at a rate of 20% per month. The data speeds have gone up considerably, which makes the access even faster.
  The event which started as a military assistance program is now largely a private enterprise.

Services on the Internet

The services that are available on the Internet can be classified into two categories:
     Communication services (electronic mail (e-mail))
     Information retrieval services (Web (pages with links and multimedia content of its Web sites))

Applications of Internet

Traditionally the internet has the following applications:
     E-mail
     News
     Remote login
     File transfer
     World wide web (www).


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