Nareddula Rajeev Reddy
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ELECTRICAL Engineering Interview / Viva Questions With Answers

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ELECTRICAL Engineering Interview Questions With Answers

1. What is electric traction?
A:Electric traction means using the electric power for traction system (i.e. for railways,trams, trolleys etc). Electric traction means use of the electricity for all the above machines. Now a days, magnetic traction is also used for bullet trains.and basically dc motors are used for electric traction systems.

2. How can you start-up the 40w tube lite with 230v AC/DC without using any choke/Coil?
A:It’s possible by means of Electronic chokes,otherwise it’s not possible to ionize the particles in tube light with normal voltage.

3. What is “pu” in electrical engineering?
A:Pu stands for per unit and this will be used in single line diagram of power distribution and it is like a huge electrical circuit with no of components (generators, transformers, loads) with different ratings (in MVA and KV). To bring all the ratings into common platform we use pu concept in which, in general largest MVA and KV ratings of the component is considered as base values, then all other component ratings will get back into this basis.Those values are called as pu values. (p.u=actual value/base value).

4. Operation carried out in Thermal power stations?
A:The water is obtained in the boiler and the coal is burnt so that steam is obtained this steam is allowed to hit the turbine , the turbine which is coupled with the generator generates the electricity.

5. Why link is provided in neutral of an ac circuit and fuse in phase of ac circuit?
A:Link is provided at a Neutral common point in the circuit from which various connection are taken for the individual control circuit and so it is given in a link form to withstand high Amps. But in the case of Fuse in the Phase of AC circuit it is designed such that the fuse rating is calculated for the particular circuit (i.e load) only.So if any malfunction happen the fuse connected in the particular control circuit alone will blow off.

5. What is the difference between electronic regulator and ordinary electrical rheostat regulator for fans?
A:The difference between the electronic and ordinary electrical regulator is that in electronic regulator power losses are less because as we decrease the speed the electronic regulator gives the power needed for that particular speed but in case of ordinary rheostat type regulator, the power wastage is same for every speed and no power is saved.In electronic regulator, triac is employed for speed control by varying the firing angle speed and it is controlled but in rheostatic ,control resistance is decreased by steps to achieve speed control.

6. How tube light circuit is connected and how it works?
A:A choke is connected in one end of the tube light and a starter is in series with the circuit. When supply is provided ,the starter will interrupt the supply cycle of AC. Due to the sudden change of supply the chock will generate around 1000 volts . This volt will capable of to break the electrons inside the tube to make electron flow. once the current passes through the tube the starter circuit will be out of part. now there is no change of supply causes choke voltage normalized and act as minimize the current.

7. whats is MARX CIRCUIT?
A:It is used with generators for charging a number of capacitor in parallel and discharging them in series.It is used when voltage required for testing is higher than the available.

8. What is encoder, how it function?
A:An encoder is a device used to change a signal (such as a bitstream) or data into a code. The code may serve any of a number of purposes such as compressing information for transmission or storage, encrypting or adding redundancies to the input code, or translating from one code to another. This is usually done by means of a programmed algorithm,especially if any part is digital, while most analog encoding is done with analog circuitry.

9. What are the advantages of speed control using thyristor?
A:Advantages :1. Fast Switching Characterstics than Mosfet, BJT, IGBT 2. Low cost 3. Higher Accurate.

10. Why Human body feel Electric shock ?? n in an Electric train during running , We did nt feel any Shock ? why?
A:Unfortunately our body is a pretty good conductor of electricity, The golden rule is Current takes the lowest  resistant path if you have insulation to our feet as the circuit is not complete (wearing rubber footwear which  doing some repairs is advisable as our footwear is a high resistance path not much current flows through our body).The electric train is well insulated from its electrical system.

11. what is the principle of motor?
Whenever a current carrying conductor is placed in an magnetic field it produce turning or twisting movemnt  is called as torque.

12. Why, when birds sit on transmission lines or current wires doesn’t get shock?
Its true that if birds touch the single one line (phase or neutral) they don’t get electrical shock... if birds touch 2 lines than the circuit is closed and they get electrical shock.. so if a human touch single one line(phase) then he doesn’t get shock if he is in the air (not touching – standing on the ground if he is standing on the ground then touching the line (phase) he will get a shock because the ground on what we standing is like line (ground bed – like neutral)? and in the most of electric lines the neutral is grounded..so that means that human who touch the line closes the circuit between phase and neutral.

13. what is meant by armature reaction?
The effect of armature flu to main flux is called armature reaction. The armature flux may support main flux or opposes main flux.

14. what happen if we give 220 volts dc supply to d bulb r tube light?
Bulbs [devices] for AC are designed to operate such that it offers high impedance to AC supply. Normally they have low resistance. When DC supply is applied, due to low resistance, the current through lamp would be so high that it may damage the bulb element.

15. Which motor has high Starting Torque and Staring current DC motor, Induction motor or Synchronous motor?
DC Series motor has high starting torque. We can not start the Induction motor and Synchronous motors on load, but can not start the DC series motor without load.

16. what is ACSR cable and where we use it?
ACSR means Aluminium conductor steel reinforced, this conductor is used in transmission & distribution.

17. What is vaccum currcuit breaker.define with cause and where be use it Device?
A breaker is normally used to break a ciruit. while breaking the circuit, the contact terminals will be separated. At the time of seperation an air gap is formed in between the terminals. Due to existing current flow the air in the gap is ionised and results in the arc. various mediums are used to quench this arc in respective CB’s. but in VCB the medium is vaccum gas. since the air in the CB is having vaccum pressure the arc formation is interrupted. VCB’s can be used upto kv.

18. What will happen when power factor is leading in distribution of power?
If their is high power factor, i.e if the power factor is close to one:
1.losses in form of heat will be reduced,
2.cable becomes less bulky and easy to carry, and verycheap to afford, &
3. it also reduces over heating of tranformers.

19. whats the one main difference between UPS & inverter ? And electrical engineering & electronics engineering ?
uninterrupt power supply is mainly use for short time . means according to ups VA it gives backup. ups is also two types : on line and offline . online ups having high volt and amp for long time backup with with high dc voltage.but ups start with 2v dc with 7 amp. but inverter is startwith 2v,24,dc to 36v dc and 20amp to 80amp battery with long time backup.

20. What is 2 phase motor?
A two phase motor is a motor with the the starting winding and the running winding have a phase split. e.g;ac servo motor.where the auxiliary winding and the control winding have a phase split of 90 degree.

21. Advantages of vvvf drives over non vvvf drives for EOT cranes?
1.smooth start and stop.
2.no jerking of load.
3.exact posiitoning
4.better protection for motor.
5.high/low speed selection.
6.reliability of break shoe.
7.programmable break control.
8.easy circutry
9.reduction in controls
10.increases motor life

22. What is the significance of vector grouping in Power Transformers?
Every power transformer has a vector group listed by its manufacturer. Fundamentally it tells you the
information about how the windings are connected (delta or wye) and the phace difference betweent the current and voltage. EG. DYN means Delta primary, Wye Secondry and the current is at o clock reffered to the voltage.

23. Which type of A.C motor is used in the fan (ceiling fan, exhaust fan, padestal fan, bracket fan etc) which are find in the houses ?
Its Single Phase induction motor which mostly squirrel cage rotor and are capacitor start capacitor run.

24. Give two basic speed control scheme of DC shunt motor?
By using flux control method:in this method a rheostat is connected across the field winding to control the field current.so by changing the current the flux produced by the field winding can be changed, and since speed is inversely proportional to flux speed can be controlled .armature control method:in this method a rheostat is connected across armature winding by varying the resistance the value of resistive drop(IaRa)can be varied,and since speed is directly proportional to Eb-IaRa the speed can be controlled.

25. what is the principle of motor?
Whenever a current carrying conductor is placed in an magnetic field it produce turning or twisting
movement is called as torque.

26. what is meant by armature reaction?
The effect of armature flu to main flux is called armature reaction. The armature flux may support main flux or opposes main flux.

27. Give two basic speed control scheme of DC shunt motor?
By using flux control method:in this method a rheostat is connected across the field winding to control the field current.so by changing the current the flux produced by the field winding can be changed, and since speed is inversely proportional to flux speed can be controlled .armature control method:in this method a rheostat is connected across armature wdg.by varying the resistance the value of resistive drop(IaRa)can be varied,and since speed is directly proportional to Eb-IaRa the speed can be controlled.

28. what is the difference between synchronous generator & asynchronous generator?
In simple, synchronous generator supply’s both active and reactive power but asynchronous
generator(induction generator) supply’s only active power and observe reactive power for
magnetizing.This type of generators are used in windmills.

29. What is the Polarization index value ? (pi value)and simple definition of polarization index ?
Its ratio between insulation resistance(IR)i.e meggar value for 0min to insulation resistance for min. It ranges from 5-7 for new motors & normally for motor to be in good condition it should be Greater than .5 .

30. Why syn. generators are used for the production of electricity?
synchronous machines have capability to work on different power factor(or say different imaginary power varying the field emf. Hence syn. generators r used for the production of electricity.

31. What is the difference between synchronous generator & asynchronous generator?
In simple, synchronous generator supply’s both active and reactive power but asynchronous
generator(induction generator) supply’s only active power and observe reactive power for magnetizing.This type of generators are used in windmills.

32. 1 ton is equal to how many watts?
1 ton = 12000 BTU/hr and to convert BTU/hr to horsepower,
12,000 * 0.000929 = 4.715 hp therefore 1 ton = 4.715*.746 = .5 KW.

33. why syn. generators r used for the production of electricity?
synchronous machines have capability to work on different power factor(or say
different imaginary pow varying the field emf. Hence syn. generators r used for the production of electricity.

34. Enlist types of dc generator?
D.C.Generators are classified into two types:
1)separatly exicted d.c.generator
2)self exicted d.c.generator,
which is further classified into;1)series 2)shunt and compound(which is further classified into cumulative and differential).

35. What is Automatic Voltage regulator(AVR)?
AVR is an abbreviation for Automatic Voltage Regulator.It is important part in Synchronous Generators, it controls theoutput voltage of the generator by controlling its excitation current. Thus it can control the output Reactive Power of the Generator.

36. What is an exciter and how does it work?
There are two types of exciters, static exciter and rotory exciter.purpose of excitor is to supply the excitation dc voltage to the fixed poles of generator.Rotory excitor is an additional small generator mounted on the shaft of main generator. if it is dc generator, it will supply dc to the rotory poles through slip ring and brushes( conventional alternator). if it is an ac excitor, out put of ac excitor is rectified by rotating diodes and supply dc to main fixed poles.ac excitor is the ac generator whose field winding are stationary and armature rotates. initial voltage is built up by residual magnetism.It gives the starting torque to the generator.

37. Difference between a four point starter and three point starter?
The shunt connection in four point stater is provided separately form the line where as in three point stater it is connected with line which is the drawback in three point stater

38. Why use the VCB at High Transmission System ? Why can’t use ACB?
Actually the thing is vacuum has high arc queching property compare to air because in VCB ,the die electric strengths equal to 8 times of air . That y always vaccum used as inHT breaker and air used as in LT .

39. What is the difference between surge arrestor and lightning arrestor?
LA is installed outside and the effect of lightning is grounded,where as surge arrestor installed inside panels comprising of resistors which consumes the energy and nullify the effect of surge.

40. What happens if i connect a capacitor to a generator load?
Connecting a capacitor across a generator always improves power factor,but it will help depends up on the engine capacity of the alternator,other wise the alternator will be over loaded due to the extra watts consumed due to the improvement on pf. Secondly, don’t connect a capacitor across an alternator while it is picking up or without any other load.

1. Why the capacitors works on ac only?
Generally capacitor gives infinite resistance to dc components(i.e., block the dc components). it allows the ac components to pass through.

2. Explain the working principal of the circuit breaker?
Circuit Breaker is one which makes or breaks the circuit.It has two contacts namely fixed contact & moving contact.under normal condition the moving contact comes in contact with fixed contact thereby forming the closed contact for the flow of current. During abnormal & faulty conditions(when current exceeds the rated value) an arc is produced between the fixed & moving contacts & thereby it forms the open circuitArc is extinguished by the Arc Quenching media like air, oil, vaccum etc.

3. How many types of colling system it transformers?
1. ONAN (oil natural,air natural)
2. ONAF (oil natural,air forced)
3. OFAF (oil forced,air forced)
4. ODWF (oil direct,water forced)
5. OFAN (oil forced,air forced)

4. What is the function of anti-pumping in circuit breaker?
when breaker is close at one time by close push button,the anti pumping contactor prevent re close the breaker by close push button after if it already close.

5. what is stepper motor.what is its uses?
Stepper motor is the electrical machine which act upon input pulse applied to it. it is one type of synchronous motor which runs in steps in either direction instead of running in complete cycle.so, in automation parts it is used.

6. How to calculate capacitor bank value to maintain unity power factor with some suitable example?
KVAR= KW(TAN(COS(-1)#e)- TAN(COS(-1)#d) )#e= EXISTING P.F.#d= DESIRED P.F.

7. Tell me in detail about c.t. and p.t. ?(Company:reliance)
The term C.T means current transformer,and the term P.T means potential transformer.In circuit where measurements of high voltage and high current is involved they are used there.Particularly when a measuring device like voltmeter or ammeter is not able to measure such high value of quantity because of large value of torque due to such high value it can damage the measuring device.so, CT and PT are introduced in the circuits. They work on the same principle of transformer, which is based on linkage of electromagneticflux produced by primary with secondary.They work on the ratio to they are designed.E.g if CTis of ratio 50005A and it has to measure secondary current of 8000A.then ANS=8000*55000=8Aand this result will be given to ammeter .and after measuring 8A we can calculate the primary current.same is the operation of PT but measuring voltage.

8. There are a Transformer and an induction machine. Those two have the same supply. For which device the load current will be maximum? And why?
The motor has max load current compare to that of transformer because the motor consumes real power.. and the transformer is only producing the working flux and its not consuming.. hence the load current in the  transformer is because of core loss so it is minimum.


9. what is power factor? whether it should be high or low? why?
Power factor should be high in order to get smooth operation of the system.Low power factor means losses will be more.it is the ratio of true power to apparent power. it has to be ideally 1. if it is too low then cable over heating & equipment overloading will occur. if it is greater than 1 then load will act as capacitor and starts feeding the source and will cause tripping.(if pf is poor ex: 0.17 to meet actual power load has to draw more current(V constant),result in more losses if pf is good ex: 0.95 to meet actual power load has to draw less current(V constant),result in less losses).

10. What is the difference between Isolator and Circuit Breaker?
Isolator is a off load device which is used for isolating the downstream circuits from upstream circuits for the reason of any maintenance on downstream circuits. it is manually operated and does not contain any solenoid unlike circuit breaker. it should not be operated while it is having load. first the load on it must be made zero and then it can safely operated. its specification only rated current is given.But circuit breaker is onload automatic device used for breaking the circuit in case of abnormal conditions like short circuit, overload etc., it is having three specification 1 is rated current and 2 is short circuit breaking capacity and 3 is instantaneous tripping current.

1. what is boucholz relay and the significance of it in to the transformer?
Boucholz relay is a device which is used for the protection of transformer from its internal faults, it is a gas based relay. whenever any internal fault occurs in a transformer, the boucholz relay at once gives a horn for some time, if the transformer is isolated from the circuit then it stop its sound itself other wise it trips the circuit by its own tripping mechanism.

2. What is SF6 Circuit Breaker?
SF6 is Sulpher hexa Flouride gas.. if this gas is used as arc quenching medium in a Circuitbreaker means SF6 CB.

3. What is frantic effect?
Output voltage is greater than the input voltage or receiving end voltage is greater than the sending end voltage.

4. What is meant by insulation voltage in cables? explain it?
It is the property of a cable by virtue of it can withstand the applied voltage without rupturing it is known as insulation level of the cable.

5. Why we do 2 types of earthing on transformer (ie:)body earthing & neutral earthing , what is function. i am going to install a oo kva transformer & 380 kva DG set what should the earthing value?
The two types of earthing are Familiar as Equipment earthing and system earthing. In Equipment earthing: body ( non conducting part)of the equipment shouldd be earthed to safegaurd the human beings.system
Earthing : In this neutral of the supply source ( Transformer or Generator) should be grounded. With this,in case of unbalanced loading neutral will not be shifted.so that unbalanced voltages will not arise. We can protect the equipment also. With size of the equipment( transformer or alternator)and selection of relying system earthing will be further classified into directly earthed,Impedance earthing, resistive (NGRs) earthing.

6. What is the difference between MCB & MCCB, Where it can be used?
MCB is miniature circuit breaker which is thermal operated and use for short circuit protection in small current rating circuit. MCCB moulded case circuit breaker and is thermal operated for over load current and magnetic operation for instant trip in short circuit condition.under voltage and under frequency may be inbuilt. Normally it is used where normal current is more than 100A.

7. Where should the lighting arrestor be placed in distribution lines?
Near distribution transformers and out going feeders of 11kv and incomming feeder of 33kv and near power transformers in sub-stations.

8. Define IDMT relay?
It is an inverse definite minimum time relay.In IDMT relay its operating is inversely proportional and also a characteristic of minimum time after which this relay operates.It is inverse in the sense ,the tripping time will decrease as the magnitude of fault current increase.

9. What are the transformer losses?
TRANSFORMER LOSSES – Transformer losses have two sources-copper loss and magnetic loss. Copper losses are caused by the resistance of the wire (I2R). Magnetic losses are caused by eddy currents and hysteresis in the core. Copper loss is a constant after the coil has been wound and therefore a measurable loss. Hysteresis loss is constant for a particular voltage and current. Eddy-current loss, however, is different for each frequency passed through the transformer.

10. What is the count of hvdc transmission lines in India?
Resolution:At present there are three hvdc transmission lines in india
1)chandrapur to padghe(mumbai)–(100 MW at ±00 kV DC)
2)rehand to delhi (100 MW at ±00 kV DC)
3)talchal to kolar (200 MW)

1. What is meant by regenerative braking?
Resolution:When the supply is cutt off for a running motor, it still continue running due to inertia. In order to stop it quickly we place a load(resitor) across the armature winding and the motor should have maintained continuous field supply. so that back e.m.f voltage is made to apply across the resistor and due to load the motor stops quickly.This type of breaking is called as “Regenerative Breaking”.

2. Why is the starting current high in a DC motor?
Resolution:In DC motors, Voltage equation is V=Eb-IaRa (V = Terminal voltage,Eb = Back emf in Motor,Ia = Armature current,Ra = Aramture resistance).At starting, Eb is zero. Therefore, V=IaRa, Ia = V/Ra ,where Ra is very less like 0.01ohm.i.e, Ia will become enormously increased.

3. What are the advantages of star-delta starter with induction motor?
Resolution:(1). The main advantage of using the star delta starter is reduction of current during the starting of the motor.Starting current is reduced to 3-4 times Of current of Direct online starting.(2). Hence the starting current is reduced , the voltage drops during the starting of motor in systems are reduced.

4. Why Delta Star Transformers are used for Lighting Loads?
Resolution:For lighting loads, neutral conductor is must and hence the secondary must be star winding. and this lighting load is always unbalanced in all three phases. To minimize the current unbalance in the primary we use delta winding in the primary. So delta / star transformer is used for lighting loads.

5. Why in a three pin plug the earth pin is thicker and longer than the other pins?
Resolution:It depends upon R=rho l/a where area(a) is inversely proportional to resistance (R), so if (a) increases, R decreases & if R is less the leakage current will take low resistance path so the earth pin should be thicker. It is longer because the The First to make the connection and Last to disconnnect should be earth Pin. This assures Safety for the person who uses the electrical instrument.

7. Why transformer ratings are in kva?
Since the power factor of transformer is dependent on load we only define VA rating and does not include power factor .In case of motors, power factor depend on construction and hence rating of motors is in KWatts and include power factor.

8. What is difference between fuse and breaker?
Fuses are burned at the time of over current flows in the circuit but breakers are just open(not burn) at the time of over current flow. Fuses are used in only one time but breakers are used by multiple number of times.

9. What is the difference between delta-delta, delta-star transformer?
Delta-delta transformer is used at generating station or a receiving station for Change of Voltage (i,e) generally it is used where the Voltage is high & Current is low.Delta-star is a distribution kind of transformer where from secondary star neutral is taken as a return path and this configuration is used for Step down voltage phenomena.

10. Capacitor is load free component but why ampere meter shows current when capacitor bank breaker close?
As we know that Electrical is having two type of load, Active and Reactive .Capacitor is a reactive load which is not considering as a load,& its factor is Isin@ .Meter is design based on Current RMS value because of it meter is showing the current RMS value.

1. What’s electric traction?
Traction implies with the electric power for traction system i. e. for railways, trams, trolleys etc. electric traction implies use of the electricity for all these. Now a day, magnetic traction is also utilised for bullet trains. Essentially dc motors are utilized for electric traction systems.

2. What is “pu” in EE?
Pu stands for per unit in power system. (pu = actual value/ base value)

3. Define stepper motor. What is the use of stepper motor?
The motor which work or act on the applied input pulse in it, is called as stepper motor.This stepper motor is under the category of synchronous motor, which often does not fully depend of complete cycle. It likes to works in either direction related to steps. for this purpose it mainly used in automation parts.

4. What is a differential amplifier? Also, explain CMRR.
Differential Amplifier: The amplifier, which is used to amplify the voltage difference between two input-lines neither of which is grounded, is called differential amplifier. This reduces the amount of noise which is injected into the amplifier, because any noise appearing simultaneously on both the input-terminals as the amplifying circuitry rejects it being a common mode signal.
CMRR: It can be defined as the ratio of differential voltage-gain to common made voltage gain. If a differential amplifier is perfect, CMRR will be infinite because in that case common mode voltage gain would be zero.

5. What is use of lockout relay in ht voltage?
A lock-out relay is generally placed in line before or after the e-stop switch so the power can be shut off at one central location. This relay is powered by the same electrical source as the control power which is operated by a key lock switch. The relay itself may have up to 24 contact points within the unit itself. This allows the control power for multiple machines to be locked out by the turn of a single key switch.

6. How can you start-up the 40w tube lite with 230v AC/DC without using any choke/Coil?
It’s possible with Electronic choke. otherwise it’s not possible to ionize the particles in tube. light, with normal voltage.


7. What types domain of Laplace transforms? What behavior can Laplace transform predict how the system work?
Types domain of Laplace transforms is s-domain, Laplace transforms provide a method to find position, acceleration or voltage the system will have.

8. In the magnetic fluxes, what is the role of armature reaction?
The armature flux has an important role for the running condition. This armature flux can oppose the main flux or it may support the main flux for better running condition. This effect of supporting and opposing of main flux to armature flux is called armature reaction.

9. Explain thin film resistors and wire-wound resistors
Thin film resistors- It is constructed as a thin film of resistive material is deposited on an insulating substrate.
Desired results are obtained by either trimming the layer thickness or by cutting helical grooves of suitable pitch along its length. During this process, the value of the resistance is monitored closely and cutting of grooves is stopped as soon as the desired value of resistance is obtained.
Wire wound resistors – length of wire wound around an insulating cylindrical core are known as wire wound resistors. These wires are made of materials such as Constantan and Manganin because of their high resistivity, and low temperature coefficients. The complete wire wound resistor is coated with an insulating material such as baked enamel

10. whats the one main difference between UPS & inverter ? And electrical engineering & electronics engineering ?
uninterrupt power supply is mainly use for short time . means according to ups VA it gives backup. ups is also two types : on line and offline . online ups having high volt and amp for long time backup with with high dc voltage.but ups start with v dc with 7 amp. but inverter is startwith v,24,dc to 36v dc and 0amp to 180amp battery with long time backup.

ELECTRICAL Engineering Interview Questions and Answers pdf for freshers :-
1. What are the operation carried out in Thermal power station?
The water is obtained in the boiler and the coal is burnt so that steam is obtained this steam is allowed to hit the turbine, the turbine which is coupled with the generator generates the electricity

2. What is the difference between Electronic regulator and ordinary rheostat regulator for fans?
The difference between the electronic and ordinary regulator is the fact that in electronic reg. power losses tend to be less because as we minimize the speed the electronic reg. give the power necessary for that particular speed but in case of ordinary rheostat type reg. the power wastage is same for every speed and no power is saved. In electronic regulator triac is employed for speed control. by varying the firing angle speed is controlled but in rheostatic control resistance is decreased by steps to achievespeed control.

3. What is 2 phase motor?
A two phase motor is often a motor with the the starting winding and the running winding have a phase split. e.g; ac servo motor. where the auxiliary winding and the control winding have a phase split of 90 degree.

4. What does quality factor depend on in resonance?
Quality factor q depends on frequency and bandwidth.

5. What are the types of power in electrical power?
There are normally three types of power are counted in electrical power. They are,
• Apparent power
• Active power
• Reactive power

6. What are the advantages of VSCF wind electrical system?
Advantages of VSCF wind electrical system are:
• No complex pitch changing mechanism is needed.
• Aero turbine always keeps going at maximum efficiency point.
• Extra energy in the high wind speed region of the speed – duration curve can be extracted
• Significant reduction in aerodynamic stresses, which are associated with constant – speed operation.

7. What is slip in an induction motor?
Slip can be defined as the distinction between the flux speed (Ns) and the rotor speed (N). Speed of the rotor of an induction motor is always less than its synchronous speed. It is usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed (Ns) and represented by the symbol ‘S’.

8. Why link is provided in neutral of an ac circuit and fuse in phase of ac circuit?
Link is provided at a Neutral common point in the circuit from which various connection are taken for the individual control circuit and so it is given in a link form to withstand high Amps. But in the case of Fuse in the Phase of AC circuit it is designed such that the fuse rating is calculated for the particular circuit (i.e load) only.So if any malfunction happen the fuse connected in the particular control circuit alone will blow off.

9. State the difference between generator and alternator?
Generator and alternator are two devices, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Both have the same principle of electromagnetic induction, the only difference is that their construction. Generator persists stationary magnetic field and rotating conductor which rolls on the armature with slip rings and brushes riding against each other, hence it converts the induced emf into dc current for external load whereas an alternator has a stationary armature and rotating magnetic field for high voltages but for low voltage output rotating armature and stationary magnetic field is used.

10. What is ACSR cable and where we use it?
ACSR means Aluminium conductor steel reinforced, this conductor is used in transmission & distribution.

197. What is the voltage gain or transfer function of amplifier?
Vout/Vin

198. What does the KVAR means?
The KVAR indicates the electrical power. KVAR means “Kilo Volt Amperes with Reactive components”

199. Why use the VCB at High Transmission System ? Why can’t use ACB?
Actually the thing is vacuum has high arc queching property compare to air because in VCB ,the die electric strengths equal to 8 times of air . That y always vaccum used as inHT breaker and air used as in LT .

200. What is the difference between MCB & MCCB, Where it can be used?
MCB is miniature circuit breaker which is thermal operated and use for short circuit protection in small current rating circuit. MCCB moulded case circuit breaker and is thermal operated for over load current and magnetic operation for instant trip in short circuit condition.under voltage and under frequency may be inbuilt. Normally it is used where normal current is more than 100A.

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Venkata Krishna Reddy Nareddula

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SAIL Management Trainee Electronics Model Questions And Answers
This paper contains generally asked questions in three different sections such as:
  • Aptitude
  • Technical
  • General Knowledge

a) Aptitude Questions:
1. Jagan went to another town covering 240 km by car moving at 60 kmph. Then he covered 400km by train moving at 100 kmph and then rest 200 km he covered by a bus moving at 50 kmph. The average speed during
the whole journey was:
80 kmph
70 kmph
75 kmph
72 kmph
Answer: 1

2. A shopkeeper buys 144 eggs at 90 paise each. In the way 20 eggs were broken. He sold the remaining eggs at Rs. 1.20 each. The percentage gain or loss is
14.8% gain
12.9% gain
8.5% gain
4.8% gain
Answer: 2

3. Perimeter of the back wheel = 9 feet, front wheel = 7 feet on a certain distance, the front wheel gets 10 revolutions more than the back wheel .What is the distance?
123
315
310
320
Answer : 2

4. A shop gives 10% discount on the purchase of an item. If paid for in cash immediately, a further discount of 12% is given. If the original price of the item is Rs. 250, what is the price of the article if a cash purchase is made?
Rs. 200
Rs. 195
Rs. 198
Rs. 190
Answer:3

5. Perimeter of front wheel =30, back wheel = 20. If front wheel revolves 240 times. How many revolutions will the back wheel take?
350
320
310
360
Answer: 4

6. 20% of a 6 litre solution and 60% of 4 litre solution are mixed. What percentage of the mixture of solution
3%
36%
20%
15%
Answer: 2

7. City A's population is 68000, decreasing at a rate of 80 people per year. City B having population 42000 is increasing at a rate of 120 people per year. In how many years both the cities will have same population?
140
150
130
160
Answer: 3

8. A pipe of 2 inch diameter fills the water tank in one hour. If the diameter of the pipe is 4 inch in what time will the pipe fill the same tank?
10 minutes
15 minutes
30 minutes
45 minutes
Answer: 2

9.Two cars are 15 kms apart. One is turning at a speed of 50kmph and the other at 40kmph . How much time will it take for the two cars to meet?
1/2
2/3
3
3/2
Answer: 4

10. A person wants to buy 3 paise and 5 paise stamps costing exactly one rupee. If he buys which of the following number of stamps he won't able to buy 3 paise stamps.
6
9
10
4
Answer: 2

11. A horse is tied at the corner of a rectangular field, whose length is 20m and width is 16m with a rope whose length is 14m. Find the area which the horse can graze?
156 sq.m.
154 sq.m.
164 sq.m.
144 sq.m.
Answer:2

12. There are 12 boys and 15 girls, How many different dancing groups can be formed with 2 boys and 3 girls.
1
2
4
5
Answer :3

13. Which of the following fractions is less than 1/3
22/62
15/46
2/3
1
Answer: 2

14. There are two circles, one circle is inscribed and another circle is circumscribed over a square. What is the
ratio of area of inner to outer circle?
2:1
1:3
1:2
1:4
Answer: 3

15. Three types of tea the a,b,c costs Rs. 95/kg,100/kg and70/kg respectively. How many kgs of each should be blended to produce 100 kg of mixture worth Rs.90/kg, given that the quntities of band c are equal
70,15,15
50,25,25
60,20,20
40,30,30
Answer: 2

16. The area of a triangle is equal to the area of a square whose each side is 60 metres. The height of the triangle is 90 metres. The base of the triangle will be
75 m
85 m
65 m
80 m
Answer: 4

17. Sam and Rita was sitting in a park in the evening looking at the sunset to the horizon. What is the direction of their right hand side?
East
West
North
South
Answer: 2

18. It takes 40 men eight days to earn Rs. 2000.How many men will earn Rs.200 in two days?
10
14
16
20
Answer: 3

19. Ten men can finish construction of a wall in eight days. How much men are needed to finish the work in half-a-day?
80
100
120
160
Answer: 4

20. It was Wednesday on July 15, 1964. What was the day on July 15, 1965?
Thursday
Tuesday
Friday
None of these
Answer: 1


b) Technical Questions:
1. Two coils in differential connection have self-inductance of 2 mH and 4 mH and a mutual inductance of 0.15 mH. The equivalent inductance of the combination is
5.7 mH
5.85 mH
6 mH
6.15 mH.
Answer: 1

2. Opto-couplers combine
SITs and BJTs
IGBTs and MOSFETS
Power transformers and silicon transistor
Infrared light-emitting diode and a silicon photo transistor
Answer: 4

3. In TV system, vertical pulses are separated out from horizontal pulses by the use of
integrator
differentiator
sweep credit
sync separator
Answer: 4

4. Two point charges Q and -Q are located on two opposite corners of a square as shown in figure. If the potential at the corner A is taken as 1V, then the potential at B, the center of the square will be
Zero
(1/2)^1/2V
1 V
(2)^1/2V
Answer: 3

5. Frequency in the UHF range propagate by means of
Ground waves
Sky waves
Surface waves
Space waves.
Answer: 4

6. The efficiency of a chopper can be expected in the range
50 to 55 percent
65 to 72 percent
82 to 87 percent
92 to 99 percent
Answer: 4

7. The function of diplexer bridge in a TV transmitter is
to prevent the loading of several transmitters by video transmitter
to increase the bandwidth
to increase the power output
to increase the efficiency of transmission.
Answer: 1

8. Pure metals generally have
high conductivity and low temperature coefficient
high conductivity and large temperature coefficient
low conductivity and zero temperature coefficient
low conductivity and high temperature coefficient
Answer:4

9. The number of LED displays in duration in logic probe are?
1
2
4
1 or 2
Answer: 2

10. Which of these are two state device?
Lamp
magnetic tap
punched card
All the above
Answer: 4

11. A current transducer respond to?
steady current only
pulsating current only
both pulasting and steady
none of these
Answer: 2

12. -ogic analyser is?
a multi channel oscilloscope
similar to logic pulser
similar to current tracer
none of above
Answer: 1

13. The output impenitence of a logic pulser is?
-ow
High
.ay be low or high
$anht say
Answer: 1

14. $urrent I0 in the given circuit will be
10 A
3.33 A
20 A
2.5 A
Answer: 2

15. In the given circuit voltage 7 is reduced to half. The current will become
I 2
2 I
1.5 I
I ȼR2    9-   9$ 2
Answer: 1

16. The function          3 s           has
                         s   1   s   2
one zero, two poles
no zero, one pole
no zero, two poles
one zero, no pole
Answer: 1

17. The diameter of an atom is of the order
10-6 m
10-10 m
10-15 m
10-21 m
Answer: 2

18. .If the d.c. valve of a rectified output is 300 V & peak to peak ripple voltage is 10 V, the ripple factor is
1.18%
3.33%
3.36%
6.66%
Answer: 2

19. .Compared to a CB amplifier the CE amplifier has higher
current amplification
output dynamic resistance
leakage current
input dynamic resistance
all of the above
Answer: 5

20. Which of the following binary number is equivalent to BCD?
1010
1000
1001
None of these
Answer: 4


c) General Knowledge Questions
1. Which pass was opened between India and China for trade?
Nathula
Khardungla
Chumbi
Solang
Answer: 1

2. ‘Threat of global warming’ is increasing due to increasing concentration of:
Ozone
Nitrous oxide
Sulphur dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Answer: 4

 3. The Finance Commission is primarily concerned with recommending to the President about :
The principle governing grants-in-aid to be given to the States
Distributing the net proceeds of the taxes between the Centre and the States
Neither nor
Both and
Answer: 4

4. The ball used in which of the games is usually oval in shape?
Rugby
Golf
Polo
Volleyball
Answer: 1

5. Rajya Sabha can delay the Finance Bill sent for its consideration by the Lok Sabha for a maximum period of :
One month
One year
Seven days
Fourteen days
Answer: 4

6. Who is known a the first Law Officer of India?
Chief Justice of India
Law Minister of India
Solicitor General of India
Law Secretary
Answer: 3

7. Nathu La Pass is situated in which state?
Arunachal Pradesh
Assam
Meghalaya
Sikkim
Answer:4

8. .As per recommendations of the Twelfth Finance Commission,percentage share of States of the shareable central taxes is?
28.5
29.5
30.5
32.4
Answer: 3

9. In India, national income is estimated by :
Planning Commission
Central Statistical Organization
Indian Statistical Institute
National Sample Survey Organization
Answer: 2

10. Which one of the following is the time limit for the ratification of an emergency period by the Parliament?
14 days
1 month
3 months
6 months
Answer: 2

11. .Which one of the following is not an objective of fiscal policy of Indian Government?
Full employment
Price stability
Regulation of inter-State trade
Equitable distribution of wealth and income.
Answer: 3

12. How many times has Financial Emergency been declared in India so far?
5 times
4 times
Once
Never
Answer: 4

13. What is earlier name of the present ‘National Library in Kolkata’?
Imperial library
British library
Royal library
Albert library
Answer: 1

14. Which one of the following motions can the Council of Ministers in India move?
No Confidence Motion
Censure Motion
Adjournment Motion
Confidence Motion
Answer: 4

15. The capital of Mauritius is
Male
Kabul
Suva
Port Louis
Answer: 4

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Wipro Previous Years Placement Papers Questions and Answers

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WIPRO Paper placement paper Question and answers

Wipro is a largest software company based on India. Wipro placement papers of aptitude and technical  interview questions and answers. It is a previous year placement paper for student’s reference. Meanwhile consider this paper as a sample or model of placement paper. Find Solved Placement Papers of Wipro technologies. Questions have been compiled across different patterns and sections of Wipro papers.So  practice well on your part and make use of it.

                                     Wipro Previous Year Question Paper

Aptitude Questions :
(A) If statement (I) alone is sufficient but statement (II) alone is not sufficient.
(B) If statement (II) alone is sufficient but statement (I) alone is not sufficient.
(C) If both statements together are sufficient but neither of statements alone is sufficient.
(D) If both together are not sufficient.

1. What is John's age?
(I) In 15 years John will be twice as old as Dias would be
(II) Dias was born 5 years ago
Ans. (C)

2. What is the distance from city A to city C in kms?
(I) City A is 90 kms from City B
(II) City B is 30 kms from City C
Ans. (D)

3.Is A=C ? A, B ,C are real numbers
(I) A-B=B-C
(II) A-2C = C-2B
Ans. (C)

4. What is the 30th term of a given sequence ?
(I) The first two terms of the sequence are 1,1/2
(II) The common difference is -1/2
Ans. (A)

5.Was Avinash early, on time or late for work?
(I) He thought his watch was 10 minutes fast
(II) Actually his watch was 5 minutes slow
Ans. (D)

6. What is the value of A if A is an integer?
(I) A4 = 1
(II) A3 + 1 = 0
Ans. (B)

7. A person travels 12 km in the southward direction and then travels 5km to the right and then travels 15km toward the right and final ly travels 5km towards the east, how far is he from his
starting place?
(a) 5.5 kms
(b) 3 km
(c) 13 k
(d) 6.4 km
Ans. (b)

8. X's father's wife's father's granddaughter uncle will be related to X as
(a) Son
(b) Nephew
(c) Uncle
(d) Grandfather
Ans. (c)

9. Find the next number in the series 1, 3 ,7 ,13 ,21 ,31
(a) 43
(b) 33
(c) 41
(d) 45
Ans. (a)

10. If in a certain code "RANGE" is coded as 12345 and "RANDOM" is coded as 123678. Then the code for the word"MANGO" would be
(a) 82357
(b) 89343
(c) 84629
(d) 82347
Ans. (d)

11. If "PROMPT" is coded as QSPLOS ,then "PLAYER" should be
(a) QMBZFS
(b) QWMFDW
(c) QUREXM
(d) URESTI
Ans. (a)

12. A person travels 6km towards west, then travels 5km towards north ,then finally travel 6km towards west. Where is he with respect to his starting position?
(a) 13km east
(b) 13km northeast
(c) 13km northwest
(d) 13km west
Ans. (c)

13. If A speaks the truth 80% of the times, B speaks the truth 60% of the times. What is the probability that they tell the truth at the same time
(a) 0.8
(b) 0.48
(c) 0.6
(d) 0.14
Ans.(b)

14. Susan can type 10 pages in 5 minutes. Mary can type 5 pages in 10 minutes. Working together, how many pages canthey type in 30 minutes?
A. 15
B. 20
C. 25
D. 65
E. 75
Ans: E

15. Six bells commence tolling to gether and toll at intervals 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 seconds respectively. In 30 minutes how many times they toll together.
a) 4
b) 10
c) 15
d) 16
Ans: d)

Technical Questions :
1. If the time quantum is too large, Round Robin scheduling degenerates to
(a) Shortest Job First Scheduling
(b) Multilevel Queue Scheduling
(c) FCFS
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c)

2. Transponders are used for which of the following purposes
(a) Uplinking
(b) Downlinking
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c)

3. The format specifier "-%d" is used for which purpose in C
(a) Left justifying a string
(b) Right justifying a string
(c) Removing a string from the console
(d) Used for the scope specification of a char[] variable
Ans. (a)

4. A sorting algorithm which can prove to be a best time algorithm in one case and a worst time algorithm in worst case is
(a) Quick Sort
(b) Heap Sort
(c) Merge Sort
(d) Insert Sort
Ans. (a)

5. What details should never be found in the top level of a top-down design?
(a) Details
(b) Coding
(c) Decisions
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c)

6. In an absolute loading scheme, which loader function is accomplished by assembler
(a) Reallocation
(b) Allocation
(c) Linking
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d)

7. Banker's algorithm for resource allocation deals with
(a) Deadlock prevention
(b) Deadlock avoidance
(c) Deadlock recovery
(d) None of these
Ans. (b)

8. Thrashing can be avoided if
(a) The pages, belonging to the working set of the programs, are in main memory
(b) The speed of CPU is increased
(c) The speed of I/O processor are increased
(d) All of the above
Ans. (a)

9. Which of the following communications lines is best suited to interactive processing applications?
(a) Narrowband channels
(b) Simplex channels
(c) Full-duplex channels
(d) Mixed band channels
Ans. (b)

10. A feasibility document should contain all of the following except
(a) Project name
(b) Problem descriptions
(c) Feasible alternative
(d) Data flow diagrams
Ans. (d)

11. What is the main function of a data link content monitor?
(a) To detect problems in protocols
(b) To determine the type of transmission used in a data link
(c) To determine the type of switching used in a data link
(d) To determine the flow of data
Ans. (a)

12. Which of the following memories has the shortest access time?
(a) Cache memory
(b) Magnetic bubble memory
(c) Magnetic core memory
(d) RAM
Ans. (a)

13. A shift register can be used for
(a) Parallel to serial conversion
(b) Serial to parallel conversion
(c) Digital delay line
(d) All the above
Ans.(d)

14. In which of the following page replacement policies, Balady's anomaly occurs?
(a) FIFO
(b) LRU
(c) LFU
(d) NRU
Ans. (a)

15. Subschema can be used to
(a) Create very different, personalised views of the same data
(b) Present information in different formats
(c) Hide sensitive information by omitting fields from the sub-schema's description
(d) All of the above
Ans. (d)

16. A 12 address lines maps to the memory of
a. 1k bytes
b. 0.5k bytes
c. 2k bytes
d. none
Ans: b

17. In a processor these are 120 instructions . Bits needed to implement this instructions
[a] 6
[b] 7
[c] 10
[d] none
ans: b

18. In a compiler there is 36 bit for a word and to store a character 8bits are needed. IN this to store a character two words are appended .Then for storing a K characters string, How many words are needed.
[a] 2k/9
[b] (2k+8/9
[c] (k+8/9
[d] 2*(k+8/9 [e] none
Ans: a

19. Virtual memory size depends on
[a] address lines
[b] data bus
[c] disc space
[d] a & c [e] none
Ans : a

English :
Direction 1-5 : In each of the following questions, find out which part of the sentence has an error. If there is no mistake the answer is 'no error'
1. The house with all its (A)/ furniture and exotic plants (B)/ were sold for Rs. 50,000(C) / No error(D)
Ans : C

2. The teacher asked the students(A) / if everyone of them were interested in (B)/ going on an excursion (C)/ No error(D)
Ans : B

3. a physiologist in the last century demonstrated(A) / that puppies will die (B)/ if kept awake for more than five days(C) / No error(D)
Ans : B

4. It is unfortunate that(A) / many youngsters get (B)/ addicted to gamble (C)/ No error(D)
Ans : C

5. I have seen (A)/ that film last year (B)/ but I do not remember its story(C) / No error(D)
Ans: A

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